- Tourism Science -
지속가능한 관광정책의 집행요인이 지역관광사업자의 정책수용에 미치는 영향:
베트남의 ESRT 지원 민박사업 프로그램을 대상으로
The Influence of Sustainable Tourism Policy Implementation Factors on Local Operators’ Policy Acceptance:
Focusing on the Vietnam Homestay Operation Program Supported by the ESRT
(Nguyen Minh Tan, 2018)
민탄 (2018). 지속가능한 관광정책의 집행요인이 지역관광사업자의 정책수용에 미치는 영향: 베트남의 ESRT 지원 민박사업 프로그램을 대상으로. 한양대학교 대학원, 석사학위논문.
- Sustainable Tourism Policy, Policy Implementation factors, Local Tourism Operators’ Policy Acceptance, ESRT support program.
As the paradigm of humanity in the 21st century, sustainable development is particularly concerned. Hence, literature have been gradually completed in the recently mentioned field as well as in regional and tourism sustainable development. Since the early of 1990s, the concept of sustainable tourism, which refers to the inclusion of management of using local resources so that do not exceed the capacity of tourism spots to preserve the local culture and environment as well as to maintain and to increase the satisfaction of both tourists and residents, has become a desirable goal.
This study aims to synthesize theoretical framework relating to resolving social issues, which are covered by research orientation of social science.An attempt has been made to generalize theory after reviewing recently studies relating to the relationship between policy implementation factors and policy acceptance which are popular subjects in previous studies. Then, the generalized theory is reverify in terms of sustainable tourism policy. This study focuses on Vietnam Homestay Operation Program supported by the ESRT. Analyzing the effects of policy implementation factors on the policy acceptance of local tourism operators is the main purpose of this study. Since 2010, thank to EU’s support through the ESRT program, Vietnamese government has enacted several policies relating to sustainable tourism.
However, in Vietnam, it is difficult to successfully optimize policy implementation. The target group of implementing sustainable tourism policy is local tourism enterprises. There are many cases that the enterprises do not accept a policy due to distortion the original meaning of that government’s policy. The distortion is resulted from lacking of interesting in the policy of the enterprises and desiring to run business in their own way. Therefore, ensuring policy acceptance from local tourism operators at the level of implementation is key factor in successful implementation and in results of that policy.
For this purpose, according to reviewing literature, an integrated approach model has been used to describe the components that influence policy implementation factors. Those components include the environment of implementation, the content of the policy and the implementation organization. Besides, a structural model of relationship between policy implementation factors and policy acceptance has been established.
To empirically analysis the established research model, a questionnaire survey for the local homestay operators, who are implementation target groups, in Lam Dong province in Vietnam was conducted. The collected data was processed by multiple regression analysis to verify the research model and research hypotheses. After that, a hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to determine the relative significance of factors influencing policy acceptance among local tourism operators.
Results of the empirical analysis indicate firstly that, among overall factors influencing sustainable tourism policy implementation, policy goal factor, program content factor, officer capability factor and international support factor have significant effects on the policy acceptance of local tourism operators. Secondly, the hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that policy goal factor has the greatest influence, while that of international support factor is relatively small. Thirdly, results of separately analysing each implementation factor indicate that policy implementation environment factor including general environment factor, tourism infrastructure factor and international support factor; policy content factor including policy goal factor and program content factor; implementation organization factor including institutional capacity factor, executive resource factor and officer capability factor have a positive (+) influence on the policy acceptance of local tourism operators. Again, these results confirmed that policy content including policy goal and program content is the most important factor for enhancing the policy acceptance of sustainable tourism policies.
Theoretical result of this study is a model designed through an integrated approach method, illustrating a relationship between sustainable tourism policy implementation factors and policy acceptance. Results of the empirical analysis prove the usefulness of the analysis model in reflecting the characteristics of sustainable tourism policy. By using integrated model, this study escaped from traditional research models including top-down model and bottom-up model. The study aims to analyse implementation environment factor, policy content factor and implementation organization factor. Besides, different from general policy implementation studies, this study tested and analyzed the characteristics of sustainable tourism policies.
This study offers several implications. Firstly, to ensure policy acceptance from local tourism operators, policy makers should design a policy so that the content of the policy is clear; policy goals are accurate and attainable. Moreover, policy makers should offer reasonable regulations which effectively enhance the policy implication. Secondly, as for implementation organization aspect, local officers should improve professional capacity, passionately devote to work, enhance interactive capabilities, desire for progress and ready to perform duty. In order for the policies to be conducted successfully, the local officers, with all their ability and willingness, have to understand thoroughly the program contents as well as the goals, contents, and tasks of the policy. Secondly, as for implementation organization aspect, local officers’ capability is the most important factor. For that reason, they should improve professional capacity, passionately devote to work, enhance interactive capabilities, desire for progress and ready to perform duty. Finally, as for the policy implementation environment factor, the government needs to pay attention to international organization’s support. Besides, the government needs to pay enough attention and support to the general environment such as political, economic, social, environmental, legal and institutional aspects of the local area.
However, this study has limitation relating to object of the survey. Respondents in this study are local homestay operators in Lam Dong, Viet Nam. However, as respondents from different region could have different attitude toward different policies, it is necessary to widen the regions surveyed. In addition, there were few prior studies relating to tourism policy implementation. Due to this reason, comparison between research model used in this study with those in relating studies is limited.
Therefore, to support arguments mentioned in this study, it is expected that there will be more various empirical studies applying this research model as well as developing the theoretical model which illustrates relationships between policy implementation factor and policy acceptance in sustainable tourism policy.